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بحث حول التلوث بالانجليزية pollution

بحث حول التلوث بالانجليزية pollution



بحث حول التلوث بالانجليزية pollution

Know and control the risks related to the environment

What risks can threaten my territory?

Health and Environment

Soil pollution



1. Definition:

It is said that a soil is polluted when it contains an abnormal concentration of chemical compounds potentially harmful to health, plants or animals. The contamination is then either digestive (consumption of polluted water for example), or by air (dust polluted soils in the atmosphere).





2. Possible causes:

It is mostly human activities that cause soil pollution:

- Industrial installations may, in the case of a leak, an accident, or in the abandonment of a factory, cause pollution of the site.

- The spreading of plant protection products and the rejections of livestock buildings and farms are also at the origin of numerous soil pollution (in particular by nitrogen and phosphates), which in turn will lead to the contamination of runoff, and subsequently watercourses.

 - The actions of local authorities can also be at the origin of soil pollution: management of landfills and treatment plants, use of phytosanitary products by the services of green spaces, management of shared gardens, etc.

 Geographically distant events can also produce soil pollution, be it natural events (the fallout from the ashes of a volcano following a strong eruption for example), or technological (fallout after a nuclear test) or a disaster, as in the Chernobyl accident).





3. The possible consequences for health:

The evaluation of pollutants in the soil can be carried out by physical or chemical measurements (calculation of the concentration of pollutants such as mercury, copper, lead, etc.), or by observation of biological indicators: plant biodiversity and animal, etc.

In fact, these pollutants can be found in the air (dust) and in the water, where they become dangerous because they are potentially absorbed by living beings and thus have an impact on their health:

- Some heavy metals and metalloids are known to be neurotoxic or carcinogenic by ingestion and / or inhalation.

- Certain hydrocarbons, in particular benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are known for their CMR effect (carcinogenic, mutagenic, reprotoxic). In 2003, PAHs were added to products covered by the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants: they were classified as products of very high concern for health.

Many halogenated solvents or their degradation products are recognized as very toxic, toxic and harmful substances, sometimes carcinogenic (for example trichlorethylene or vinyl chloride). They can cause various disorders, including acute and chronic neurological, cutaneo mucous, hepatorenal, cardio-respiratory and digestive.











4. Some examples of actions that can be taken within local authorities:

- Preventive actions

- To deepen the state of the knowledge of the circles

- Application of control and monitoring plans for pesticide residues

- Consolidate the system for monitoring the health status of the population, and deepen the knowledge of the effects on health

- Continue reducing the exposure of populations, ensure the quality of local food production and support the professionals impacted

- Manage contaminated environments and ensure good information of the population

- ICPEs are held before their start-up or before a change or diversification of their activity to present a file in prefecture listing all the nuisances and pollution they are likely to cause or emit, and the means they intend to put to prevent and repair them if necessary.

- ICPEs which cease their activities must rehabilitate the site of the installation in a state such that it does not manifest any of the dangers or disadvantages mentioned in the article L 511-1 of the Code of the environment, this includes "aesthetic" nuisances and allows for future use determined jointly with the planning authority and the site owner.



- Repressive actions

- In the case of soil pollution, the basic principle is polluter pays.
The polluter-pays principle is to assume the financial burden of preventing, reducing and combating pollution to the polluter. In this perspective, polluting equipment and products are taxed more than ecological products.

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مواضيع بالعربية و الانجليزية topics

2016