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ايجابيات وسلبيات السفر بالسيارة بالانجليزي


ايجابيات وسلبيات السفر بالسيارة بالانجليزي قصير
ايجابيات السفر بالسيارة بالانجليزي
 مميزات وعيوب السفر بالسيارة بالانجليزي

The car: advantages and disadvantages.       
                  
For or against the car
Introduction
Bring the subject :
Modern cities are spreading over areas that would be difficult to walk even for a hiker. However, the man, who works or has urgent affairs to settle, can not do without means of transport.These constitute, at the same time the main concern of the state when it comes to public transport, and a market of any profit for the companies of cars for the transport of the private individuals.
Ask the problem :
The car has become the means of transport par excellence, its usefulness is no longer to demonstrate, However the many benefits it offers, they can hide the inconvenience that generates its use on a daily basis. What do the advocates of his cause think? And what are the replicas of those who condemn it?
Announce the plan :
To address this issue, we will adopt a four-movement plan. We will start with a history of the main lines that mark the evolution of this machine. Then we will discuss some of its essential advantages, then we will expose its disadvantages and finally we will try to see why the car is still attracting more and more people's craze.
Development
Historical
Among the difficulties that created the creativity of the human spirit, the question of moving people and objects was the most urgent. The man remedied it first by using the animals. Later, with the invention of the wheel, cars pulled or pushed by animal power are born.
The invention of the machine in the eighteenth century then provoked a tremendous industrial revolution and gave birth in the nineteenth century to the first cars.
The first cars produced and marketed are steamed in 1873 and the first prototypes using the new engines less bulky in the mid-1880s. At the same time, the development of knowledge related to electricity leads to the realization of the first cars electric: we then have three modes of propulsion. But, it is the engine that outperforms the other modes of propulsion.
The history of the car has given birth and live different trades. And progress in this area continues to make feats every day. This is indeed the area where we do the most experiments, research, discoveries and inventions. If the results do not all benefit directly to the car, on the other hand, they serve in other areas of high-tech technology.
I- The advantages of the car
If the car, in its beginnings, was a luxury object reserved for the people who could offer it, the mass production, initiated by Taylorism and undertaken by Ford, made this toy within reach of the majority of the people, and the growing phenomenon, we will count with the appearance of 50 million cars before the Second World War. In 2011, global annual production of automobiles would have reached 76 million units. The utility of the car will then cover all the activities of the trips.
a- For long journeys
Out of town, either for work or for travel, the car is a great way to get around. Indeed, thanks to its autonomy, comfort, speed and maneuverability, the car offers its owner the opportunity to take the road at any time, without living under the constraint of timetables imposed by public transport and delays and unforeseen events that may ensue.
The car also avoids the owner to experience the congestion of public transport, especially during weekends, parties or just rush hours. These inconveniences, besides the discomfort that they generate, can also be harmful for the health.For, overcrowding in a small and closed space causes the elevation of the carbon dioxide rate rejected by the individuals because of their breathing, and leads by the opposite movement to the rarefaction of the oxygen. Do not underestimate the risk of catching contagious diseases in these conditions.
Another advantage of the personal car lies in the freedom to make the stops of one's choice. Indeed, the driver chooses the places where he wants to stop, and when he wants. This is a convenience that allows him to rest when he feels the need, to eat according to his appetite and taste, and also to relieve himself in case of urgent needs. The case is even more important when he is accompanied by his children.
Indeed, the car is wonderful that it allows to bring his family in a friendly atmosphere, and in peace, without having to suffer the risks associated with public transport in such a situation. Carrying everything you need makes the trip enjoyable and relaxing.
b- For short trips
Inside the perimeter of the city, car use can be vital. We can say that the car is often an asset in the search for a job.There are even several job offers that insist on being motorized.
Since work is rarely found near home, or at least for one of the spouses in the era when both partners of the majority of couples work, the need to travel by car is essential. This allows the morning, to delay a little awake time, to have a breakfast, to dress without much haste and to arrive on time at work. The advantage of returning for lunch between noon and two o'clock is crucial, and finally returning home in the evening without much embarrassment, after a day of work can enjoy his evening to relax, take care children, to report on their day, to think about projects that change the daily routine. Finally, you can always go out for dinner, go to a show, go shopping, or visit family or friends.
In case of emergency, when an accident occurs at home or when someone is sick, the car can save him even in the middle of the night.
Finally, thanks to this means of transport, the man can do his shopping in the place he chooses. First, the quantity of the goods does not pose him any more problem and thus, he can shop for the month and for the week. It will be cheaper for him, because he saves the expenses of the trip, and less constraining in terms of time to waste each time when he goes to the market daily. The products purchased are varied and of better quality when we go to find them where they are, instead of suffering the vagaries of proximity.
c- For women .
Today, the working woman has, more than the man, need a car. It's safe in the city. Indeed, the streets of the city are increasingly the scene of theft, assault and sexual harassment. The car is a safe place for women to move without risking aggression or annoyance. This on the one hand. On the other hand, mothers, when they have the opportunity, prefer to take their children to school by car, instead of letting them go to the streets of the city, where they may have an accident or be raped by strangers. Certainly there is school transport, but these have two disadvantages. The first lies in the clutter of children, where heat, and consequently a chill on arrival. The second problem is that most children spend a lot of time in this transport, because there is a route to follow, and as we can not please everyone, children who are first on this trip will accompany the driver throughout his tour. The phenomenon "mom-taxi" is becoming more common and suits many couples.
Finally, or a last advantage for a woman to have a car is that she keeps in touch with her parents, without having recourse to her husband or a taxi. The car can even constitute for it a certain independence, and a kind of equality of power in a couple.
II- The disadvantages of the car
The car has conquered almost all homes and is the happiness of all households. It symbolizes the freedom of the man and the woman against the constraints imposed by the now unavoidable transports, and this in the daily life.
However, this marvel of technology is not without problems, at different levels.
a- For long journeys
When it comes to travel, the car comes back more expensive than public transportation. It requires first a continuous maintenance and control before each departure. The risk of breaking down from the city can be expensive and dangerous. You must also be in good health and well rested before taking the road. Otherwise, weakness or insomnia inevitably lead to the accident.
While the evolution of the car has led to the improvement of the roads, they are not always in good condition. The driver of a personal car alone pays for it. Indeed, if there is a significant deterioration in any section of the road, it may be stuck or have a serious breakdown in the car. This poses the problem of having a minimum of knowledge in mechanics.
Add to that, the bad weather. Indeed, when it starts to rain or snow or it is very hot, a driver lacks visibility, loses control of his vehicle, or becomes dehydrated. The risks that have resulted are fatal and often result in death.
When the driver is accompanied by his children, certainly the trip will cost less compared to the price of several places in a public transport, but the risk is even greater and the damage greater than when it is alone. Indeed, the presence of children and women complicates the situation, in case of breakdown. The children start crying, they want to go out.Their fragility makes them more sensitive to cold and heat. The deaths of children on the roads because of the snow or the sun are on the front pages of newspapers, especially during holidays.
Finally, we must not forget that banditry still exists. We can even say that he has perfected himself. Indeed, highwaymen are better equipped. They also benefit from technology. They have beautiful, solid and powerful cars.They have weapons, cell phones, walkie-talkies. They spot the cars they target, track them, report them to their accomplices, and stop them in deserted places. We think that it only happens to others, to the imprudent ... But, it happens often.
b- For short trips
In the city, flying, the congestion of roads have become such that it is sometimes difficult to engage the "second". Road infrastructures are insufficient despite all the forecasts and the efforts made in this direction. City dwellers, responding to a need, they believe, vital, are constantly acquiring vehicles to the delight of the automobile industry. The car improves, becomes intelligent, computerized, but the road network does not follow the movement. Low casts encourage car acquisitions, and finally our cities become traps for drivers who risk it.
Young people are also more and more likely to have cars, or at least to borrow from their mother or sister. Passing a driver's license becomes a teenager's first dream in his quest for freedom. But, the consequences are heavy. Accidents that kill dozens of people every day or, in the best case, make them disabled for life, attest to the irresponsibility of driving and playing rally on the streets of the city. Alcohol and drugs play the leading role in these daily dramas.
The pollution caused by these congestion and congestion renders the air of the cities unbreathable. Cardiovascular disease and respiratory allergies are increasing in arrows among city residents, both drivers and non-drivers. The spectacle of little children taking out their aerosol bombs to relieve their asthma attack, is only the reverse of this craze for the car.
Expenses are also rising and people are getting into debt more and more for having a car. On the one hand, credit facilities encourage people to get involved. And then, on the other hand, the possession of a car entails daily expenses.Fuel, maintenance, wear of parts, parking meters are all agents that exhaust the purse of the owner of a vehicle.
Finally, we must not forget to raise the problem of parking in the city. Owning a car does not mean having a garage at home. So, the streets are attacked by the owners, who do not hesitate to grab the sidewalks. The pedestrian often finds himself sneaking between cars, or putting his feet directly on the road to pass. This is not without making him run the risk of being hit by cars or motorcyclists. Then, the problem of finding a place to park when one arrives at work or in front of the destination, causes the driver to make endless detours, hoping to find a corner to park. This results in a considerable loss of time and fuel. The stress generated by this situation is taken into account to make the driver regret having had recourse to the car. Many car owners prefer to park far enough, in an unobstructed area, and take a taxi or make the journey that remains on foot. It is to wonder why he had not opted for this solution from the start, without taking their car.
c- For women
While owning a car is a benefit to a woman, it is also a source of inconvenience for her and her family.
The woman suffers the same constraints of the circulation as those lived by the man. First, it is doubly dangerous for a woman to take long distances alone or with children or other women. The fragile constitution of the woman, her lack of experience of the dangerous situations of life outside the city, make her run risks that she can not bear or manage.
In the city, women experience the stresses of traffic and often face the cruelty of men who call it crazy, inexperienced, fickle, even though many women drive better than men. Curiously, if men respect women or are intimidated by them when they are on foot, they do not hesitate in revenge to insult them, to make fun of them or to harass them when they are driving. This situation exasperates women and makes them sometimes do maneuvers that confirm men's sexist claims.
Another point that complicates the task of the women driving is that they are the ones who take care of the children, as by parental obligation, whereas the father has no problem so that the children go in public transport or on foot . For him, this is part of the learning of life, while for mom, this is a source of anxiety that she prefers to avoid by paying for her personal comfort, time, and money.
Finally, it is women who take care of shopping, shopping for children, consultations with the doctor, family visits, outings. So much so that we can say that they spend most of their time driving their cars. You only have to see the city streets to realize that most cars are driven by women. It tires them, stresses them, makes them spend too much money, and quickly uses their vehicle.
III- The reign of the car
The car continues to improve and attract more and more followers. From the dream of the little child who gloats when he has toyed with a car, to the collector of miniature or model cars or the passion of tuning fans, the car has not stopped provoking men's passion and women. Formula 1 champions like Michael Schumacher and Alain Prost inflamed the hearts of admirers and became legendary. Their exploits are to the glory of the car and of this perfect union between the man and the machine become extension of his driver, thus concretizing this mythical dream of the Centaur.
The car gives the man multiple services. She is her auxiliary par excellence. He makes another himself on whom he can count in all situations of life. Bitch to her, he made himself master of time and space.
Only the man did not foresee the glory to which the destiny of the car was devoted. He had not prepared well for it.These roads do not support so much traffic. The consumption of energy on the one hand and the pollution generated on the other cost it more than what it collects as the fruit of this invention.
Solutions are at your fingertips. The car must regain its place of prestige. There is now public transport. You just have to mobilize to make them better. In developed countries, public transport is the priority of the state. Their abundance, diversity, punctuality, comfort, and security are no longer in doubt, and have been for decades. They are the ones who reflect the level of progress of a country, its modernism and its advanced awareness. People use their cars when they decide to have them, only when they work outside the city, or when they want to go shopping, go out on a weekend or go on a trip.
It is in the underdeveloped countries that the use of the car is increasing. While there is a beginning of change of mentalities, but it is an effort that requires a colossal investment. The development of road infrastructures and the introduction of new means of public transport will find irreparable echoes among citizens. There is only to see the tramway experience in Morocco. Admittedly, the works took a lot of time, and caused a lot of disturbances in the traffic of Rabat-Salé and Casablanca, but the result is convincing. Today, people use them as if they have always done that. Of course, the routes served do not favor everyone, but other lines will follow.
Conclusion :
Synthesis
Certainly the rise of the car is no longer to challenge. It develops and will still have long days of glory. It is the means of transport that allows you to combine business with pleasure. These negative sides do not come from itself but from the thoughtless use that man makes of it. We can not say that the reign of the car will one day live its decline as it continues to inspire both the creativity of manufacturers and the dream of freedom of drivers.
Reminder of the problem :
Luxury object, means of transport of first necessity, or simple acquisition of the modern consumer society. The car has not ceased to raise the controversy of its utility, and since its invention. But the progress it is making in such a short time, testifies to the genius of the man and the interest he brings to this vehicle. We have tried to define the arguments of those who proclaim his glory, without concealing the answers of those who anticipate his decline
Opening :
We do not know what will be done, so much is the progress at a speed. All that we live today was part of the science fiction of an era that is not too far away. State-of-the-art technology now paired with electronic chips, and controlled by computers, and by GPS, make the modern car a kind of terminal to the control of which the driver is a cosmonaut piloting a spaceship.
How will tomorrow's cars be? Will they succeed in overcoming gravity? Will they fly as in science fiction movies?
But in the meantime, there is still so much to be done in the traffic of cities in developing countries, in terms of superimposed roads, and suspended rails, subways, trams.
There is also so much beautiful idea to copy: among others, to do one day a week without cars, Sunday for example.In Japan, the streets are washed and become a great picnic place,

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