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The water that we drink
Water is present everywhere in our daily life: it is used to drink, to prepare the kitchen, to wash, to evacuate the toilets, to water the garden, to clean the house, etc. It also serves for most human activities around us: for agriculture, industrial production, transport, cleaning cities, energy ... France receives 440 billion m3 of water every year. rain, snow, etc. Water is rather abundant in France. Faced with this, about 41 billion m3 are taken each year by man, for all these multiple uses.
How much water is used every day at home?
Consumptions at home are of two kinds:
• Food Uses: The water we drink represents only 1% of our total tap water consumption! If we add the water necessary for the preparation of food (cooking, washing ...), it still represents only 7% of our total consumption.
• Non-food uses: Most of the water we consume at home, 93%, is used for personal hygiene, flushing toilets, and various household chores.
At home, a Frenchman consumes an average of 150 liters of water a day.
At home, it is interesting to know how much water is used for every gesture of everyday life. Here is the average consumption per use:
• In the kitchen :
- Dishes by hand: 10 to 12 liters
- Dishwasher: 25 to 40 liters
- Washing machine: 70 to 120 liters
• In the toilets, flushing: 6 to 12 liters with each use
• In the bathroom :
- Toilet to the sink: 5 liters
- Shower from 4 to 5 minutes: 60 to 80 liters
- Bath: 150 to 200 liters
• In the garden :
- Washing the car: 200 liters
- Irrigation of the garden: 15 to 20 liters per m2
- Filling a pool: from 50000 to 80000 liters

Water for agriculture, industry and energy
Agriculture uses 12% of the water taken in France. Maize cultivation alone accounts for more than 40% of the water consumed by different crops.
To produce one tonne of wheat, you need 1500 m3 of water. It takes as much to produce one ton of corn. And the volume of water goes up to 4500 m3 for one ton of rice.
The industry uses 10% of the water taken in France. It takes water to make many products, but it is also used for washing or disposal of waste or heating. However, water is mainly used for cooling industrial plants.
The most water consuming sectors in the industry are: metallurgy, chemistry, agri-food, petroleum refineries, pulp manufacturing ... For example, 500 m3 of water is needed to produce ton of steel or a ton of paper. About 35 m3 of water is needed to produce a car.

Energy production requires large drawdowns: 45% of the total alone. This is how EDF operates reservoir dams, either to produce hydroelectric power or to operate its nuclear power plants.

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مواضيع بالعربية و الانجليزية topics

2016