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اسباب التلوث بالانجليزي

اسباب التلوث بالانجليزي



اسباب التلوث بالانجليزي
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Causes of air pollution
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The main causes of air pollution are related to the ignition of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas). The combustion of these raw materials occurs mainly during or in the operation of the industrial and land transport sectors. In the industrial sector it is necessary to differentiate the factories (for example, cement or steel) and the power plants (which produce half of the electricity consumed in our country).
The main causes of air pollution are related to the ignition of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas). The combustion of these raw materials occurs mainly during or in the operation of the industrial and land transport sectors. In the industrial sector it is necessary to differentiate the factories (for example, cement or steel) and the power plants (which produce half of the electricity consumed in our country).

The division of responsibilities in air pollution between the industrial sector and land transport is clearly imbalanced towards transport. About 80% of air pollution in Spain is due to road traffic.

Modern societies have organized themselves in connection with transport, as in other aspects, and against all the basic principles of Nature. As humanity has become surrounded by technologies, the means of transport have acquired a more mechanical character, trying to satisfy two basic tendencies, independently of the problems they may cause: on the one hand, increase of speed and secondly allow a relative independence of the users. This surge in transportation technology has resulted in greater convenience and efficiency in service, but on the other hand, it is causing an intolerable increase in the environmental and social impacts associated with this activity, between other air pollution.

In Spain, transport uses almost 40% of the total energy consumed (the EU average is 30%), this figure increases to 50% if we consider the productive cycle of transport as a whole. Looking at the complete transport cycle, not only does the fuel used by vehicles to move (the energy cost of official statistics) be counted, but also the energy consumed in the manufacture of the vehicle, the construction road infrastructure, its maintenance and, ultimately, the destruction of the vehicle.

The road is today a means of transport and continues to gain ground against the railways, as long as the development of road transport has to be blamed on the unbridled increase of transport. Road transport represents 90% of the various means of transport, compared to the train which remains at a small 5%. In road transport, the private car consumes half of the energy resources, while public transport only consumes 3%. The average occupancy index for private vehicles is 1.2 persons per car. In the city, half of the trips made by car are for distances less than 3 kilometers, and about 10% for journeys of less than 500 meters.

The same thing happens with the passenger traffic, but also with the goods, which are mainly transported by road: on average 70% of the total transport in the EU countries, which goes up to 90% in Spain, which means that the train has gradually lost importance, abandoning lines and services, to represent nowadays only 4.2% of this traffic. This rail decline coincided with a large increase in freight transport, which was multiplied by 3 as a consequence of the enlargement of the EU (with the entry of Spain and Portugal, among others) which causes serious congestion problems in the main European cities, congestion that is already happening 100km from major cities.

On the other hand, the transport of goods by road to a significant environmental impact, which also continues to increase. Although trucks represent only 10% of vehicles, they emit between 30 and 40% of nitrogen oxides and suspended particles. They are also responsible for most of the sulfur dioxide emissions from road transport.

This predominant situation is not the result of a natural evolution of the economy, but it responds to transport policies that benefited the latter to the detriment of others through fiscal measures, subsidies and construction. infrastructure, although it is the least efficient means of transport...

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إذا أعجبك محتوى مدونتنا نتمنى البقاء على تواصل دائم ، فقط قم بإدخال بريدك الإلكتروني للإشتراك في بريد المدونة السريع ليصلك جديد المدونة أولاً بأول ، كما يمكنك إرسال رساله بالضغط على الزر المجاور ...

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مواضيع بالعربية و الانجليزية topics

2016