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اسباب تلوث الهواء بالانجليزي




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.. Causes of air pollution

The main causes of air pollution are related to the ignition of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas). The combustion of these raw materials occurs mainly during or in the operation of the industrial and land transport sectors. In the industrial sector it is necessary to differentiate the factories (for example, cement or steel) and the power plants (which produce half of the electricity consumed in our country).

The main causes of air pollution are related to the ignition of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas). The combustion of these raw materials occurs mainly during or in the operation of the industrial and land transport sectors. In the industrial sector it is necessary to differentiate the factories (for example, cement or steel) and the power plants (which produce half of the electricity consumed in our country).



The division of responsibilities in air pollution between the industrial sector and land transport is clearly imbalanced towards transport. About 80% of air pollution in Spain is due to road traffic.



Modern societies have organized themselves in connection with transport, as in other aspects, and against all the basic principles of Nature. As humanity has become surrounded by technologies, the means of transport have acquired a more mechanical character, trying to satisfy two basic tendencies, independently of the problems they may cause: on the one hand, increase of speed and secondly allow a relative independence of the users. This surge in transportation technology has resulted in greater convenience and efficiency in service, but on the other hand, it is causing an intolerable increase in the environmental and social impacts associated with this activity, between other air pollution.



In Spain, transport uses almost 40% of the total energy consumed (the EU average is 30%), this figure increases to 50% if we consider the productive cycle of transport as a whole. Looking at the complete transport cycle, not only does the fuel used by vehicles to move (the energy cost of official statistics) be counted, but also the energy consumed in the manufacture of the vehicle, the construction road infrastructure, its maintenance and, ultimately, the destruction of the vehicle.



The road is today a means of transport and continues to gain ground against the railways, as long as the development of road transport has to be blamed on the unbridled increase of transport. Road transport represents 90% of the various means of transport, compared to the train which remains at a small 5%. In road transport, the private car consumes half of the energy resources , while public transport only consumes 3%. The average occupancy index for private vehicles is 1.2 persons per car. In the city, half of the trips made by car are for distances less than 3 kilometers, and about 10% for journeys of less than 500 meters.



The same thing happens with the passenger traffic, but also with the goods, which are mainly transported by road: on average 70% of the total transport in the EU countries, which goes up to 90% in Spain, which means that the train has gradually lost importance, abandoning lines and services, to represent nowadays only 4.2% of this traffic. This rail decline coincided with a large increase in freight transport, which was multiplied by 3 as a consequence of the enlargement of the EU (with the entry of Spain and Portugal, among others) which causes serious congestion problems in the main European cities, congestion that is already happening 100km from major cities.



On the other hand, the transport of goods by road to a significant environmental impact, which also continues to increase. Although trucks represent only 10% of vehicles, they emit between 30 and 40% of nitrogen oxides and suspended particles. They are also responsible for most of the sulfur dioxide emissions from road transport.



This predominant situation is not the result of a natural evolution of the economy, but it responds to transport policies that benefited the latter to the detriment of others through fiscal measures, subsidies and construction. infrastructure (year after year the road takes between 60 and 70% of major investments in transport), although it is the least efficient means of transport and creates environmental problems. This supremacy given to the automobile supposes the abandonment of the concept of transport as a public service that the State must provide to all citizens, which means the exclusion of all those who do not have a car or a driving license. driving, who each time encounter more mobility problems.



In the same way, behind this evolution is not only the relative advantages of speed and comfort, but also the triumph of the excessive productivist model imposed from the public and private authorities. This model moves users and goods to private transport and means of transportation that are less energy efficient.



In general, transport is considered as one more economic activity, the optimal state of which is indefinite development and the best tax possible. In Spain, the growth of transport is distributed in such a way that it is the means of transport that causes the most environmental impact that receive the greatest support and public investment, such as the automobile, the high speed train and the 'plane.



The lack of policy conviction despite the facts stems, in part, from the fact that they are largely immersed in the automotive culture they promote, trying to solve congestion by increasing the capacity of the roads, causing a greater traffic and, in the first instance, more congestion with more vehicles in circulation. Thus, they persist in an obsolete policy that has already largely demonstrated its inefficiency for more than thirty years.



industry



In December 2002 we celebrated the 50th anniversary of the great smog episode in London. Stagnant weather conditions led to a sharp increase in the concentration of air pollutants, due to gaseous emissions from industry, for four days. As a result 4000 people died. This event did not lack precedents, already in the 30s reports appeared on similar facts in industrialized countries. This represents the peak of a trend that began with the Industrial Revolution of the nineteenth century and whose specificity depended on the consumption of fossil fuels. Twenty years ago, after the strongest of a successful period in the reduction of traditional air pollutants, it was thought that with concentrations found in developed countries the negative effects of pollution on health could be considered negligible. However, in the next two decades, air pollution came to the fore, emerging as a major environmental health problem, caused mainly by transportation and leaving the industry a secondary but significant role. We can not forget that in recent years (2000, 2002, 2004, 2005) our country has exceeded the national emission ceiling for Large Combustion Plants (which include thermal power generation plants , but also refineries and other major polluters) for Nitrogen Oxides ( NOx ).



Conclusion



To summarize, transportation is the main cause of air pollution in industry, whether factories or electricity generation. In transport, private vehicles are mainly responsible for poor air quality. Which means that the use of the car largely causes the serious problem we are talking about.

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مواضيع بالعربية و الانجليزية topics

2016