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تعبير عن البيئه بالانجليزي قصير

تعبير عن البيئه بالانجليزي قصير



تعبير عن البيئه بالانجليزي قصير


Atmospheric pollution: factors and impacts
Air pollution Footnote 1 can affect the health of Canadians, the environment, buildings, structures and the economy in general. Air pollution problems, such as smog and acid rain, are the result of the presence and interaction of various pollutants released into the atmosphere by natural processes and human activities. Natural sources of air pollution include forest fires, volcanoes and emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from vegetation. Human sources of air pollution include activities that rely on the use of carbon-based fuels (for example, transportation, electricity generation), industrial processes such as those related to oil and gas production, and as certain products, such as paint and solvents.

Main factors of atmospheric pollution
Pollutant concentrations in outdoor air can be influenced by many factors, including the amount of air pollutants released from sources, the proximity of sources, and weather conditions, such as air temperature, air stability, and air pollution. air and wind speed and direction. Some pollutants can be carried by wind and affect the air quality of places thousands of kilometers away from sources.

The growth of Canada's population and economy is increasing demand for the production and supply of goods and services, transportation and housing. The energy required to meet this demand still comes from fossil fuels, which affects the quality of the air we breathe. The growth of the economy includes growing demand for Canadian exports (particularly from the oil and gas industry), which also generates releases of air pollutants.

Despite this increased demand, emissions of many air pollutants have generally decreased in Canada over the past two decades. Various means have contributed to these reductions, including the implementation of regulations and non-regulatory instruments and the technological improvement of vehicles and industrial processes. The adoption of more environmentally sustainable practices by consumers and businesses, such as the use of public transit and carpooling, and the optimization of production processes to make them more energy efficient, have also contributed to the decrease observed.

To learn more about the main sources of air pollutant emissions, please refer to the Air Pollutant Emissions indicators.

Main impacts of air pollution
Impact on human health
Exposure to nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur oxides (SOX) can irritate the lungs, impair lung function and increase susceptibility to allergens in people with asthma. NOX and SOX are also precursors of fine particles (P2.5) and contribute to the formation of smog and acid rain.
Fine particles and ground-level ozone (O3) are the main components of smog and are associated with irritation of the eyes, nose and throat, shortness of breath, exacerbation of breathing disorders and allergies, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and premature death.Footnote 2 Children, the elderly, people with acute illnesses and those who live near cities are more vulnerable to these effects.
Impact on the environment
Tropospheric O3 can affect the growth and productivity of some crops, damage flowers and shrubs, and contribute to forest decline in parts of Canada.Footnote 3 It can also alter ecosystems, as some plant species that are more resistant to tropospheric O3 can supplant those that are less resistant.Footnote 4
Various components of the fine particles assimilated by plants in the soil can impair plant growth and productivity and cause physical damage to plant surfaces through abrasion.Footnote 4
NOX and SOX can cause or accelerate corrosion and soiling of some materials and contribute significantly to acid rain. Acid rain is harmful to soils and bodies of water and is a stressor for plant and animal species. The interactions between acid rain, ultraviolet rays and climate change can amplify the impacts of acid rain.

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2016