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موضوع عن رياضة الغوص بالانجليزي

موضوع عن رياضة الغوص بالانجليزي




موضوع عن رياضة الغوص بالانجليزي


The five most important rules in underground diving:

Underwater diving training:

A diver   underground acting with caution does not deliberately exceed the limits of its formation.Cave diving is normally taught in stages, with each successive stage emphasizing more complex aspects of cave diving. (Cavern diver -   Intro to Cave Diver   -   Full cellar Diver ) In addition, each stage of the dive training   underground is meant to be coupled with real-world experience before moving to a more advanced level. The analysis of recent accidents in underground diving has shown that inexperienced academic training is not enough in case of an underwater emergency. (the companionship or the people who   form   By reading the forums).Only by slowly building the experience can one stay calm enough to remember one's   training in case of problems. An inexperienced diver (who may be newly trained) is more likely to panic than an experienced diver when faced with a similar situation.
A continuous line of life for guidance is maintained at all times between the leader of a team of  Underground divers and a fixed point chosen outside the cave entrance in open water. This line is attached all the way inside the cave or the underground river.   As the dive leader lays the lifeline, he takes great care to ensure that there is proper tension on the line. And that he does not enter the traps of line. If visibility falls due to particles or silt, divers may find the line taut and follow it successfully at the entrance to the cave. The lack of use of a lifeline   continues to find its way is cited as the most common cause of death among untrained and uncertified divers who venture into caves.

Rules of depth:

Gas consumption and decompression requirements increase with depth, and it is essential that no diver   underground does not exceed the dive plan or maximum operating depth (MOD) of the gas mixture used. In addition, the effects of narcosis are more critical in underwater diving, even for a diver who has the same depth experience in open water. Divers are advised not to dive  "excessive depth" and keep in mind this important difference   between the depth in   free water and the depth of the cave. It should be noted that among the deaths of underground divers  properly trained, excessive depth is frequently cited as the cause of death.

Management of gas consumption:

The most common protocol is the "rule of thirds", in which one third of the quantity   initial gas is used for penetration, a third for the exit and a third to keep safe for oneself or another in case of breakdown, problem and urgency. The most common practice is the one that   is to respect the rule of thirds, but with a focus on maintaining a regular and balanced consumption of gas in bottles   separated, so that the loss of a complete air system will still give the diver enough air to return safely. The rule of thirds does not take into account the increased consumption of air that the stress caused by the loss of a bottle of air can induce. The sizes of diving bottles   dissimilar among divers are not included in the rule of thirds and a sufficient reserve must be calculated for each dive. Practice in France and in many countries   is to assume that each diver is completely autonomous, as in some   siphons   typical, there is usually nothing but a binomial  can do to help a diver in difficulty. Most underwater divers practice   solo dive . The rule of thirds was conceived as an approach to cave diving   in Florida - they typically have outgoing currents  strong, which help reduce air consumption when going out. In a cave system with little (or no) outflow, it is mandatory to reserve more air than necessary,   by the rule of thirds.

Lighting :

Each diver must have three independent sources of light. One is considered the main and the other two are considered lamps   rescue. Each light must have a lighting autonomy   provided for at least the planned duration of the dive. If one of the three light sources fails   for a diver, the dive is canceled and ended for all members of the team   Diving.
In recent years, new factors have been taken into consideration after considering accidents involving solo diving, diving with pairs   diving, video or photography in caves, dives in complex networks of underground rivers   and cave diving   in big caves. With the establishment of technical diving, the use of gas mixtures - as the   trimix   for the bottom gas, and the   nitrox   and oxygen for decompression   - reduces the margin of error. The accident analysis suggests that breathing the wrong gas at the wrong depth and / or not analyzing the breathing gas   correctly led to accidents in   underground diving.
Underwater diving   requires a variety of specialized techniques. Divers who do not properly apply these techniques greatly increase the risk for their team members. The community of divers   Underground works hard to educate the public about the risks they assume when they enter underground rivers. The strong warning signs with explicit skulls were placed just inside of  the entrance to many caves   popular in the USA. Others were placed in the car parks   nearby and in   local dive shops. This practice is now happening in France.
Many underground dive sites   around the world contain ponds, which are also open water diving sites. The management of these sites attempts to minimize the risk that untrained divers will be tempted to venture into cave systems. With the support of the divers' community  underground, many of these locations impose a "no light rule" for divers who are not trained in cave diving   - they can not carry lighting with them in the water. Enter an underwater cave with dive lighting   and you are not going to realize how far from the entrance (and daylight) you have plunged; This rule is based on the theory that without lighting, divers do not venture beyond daylight.
The new techniques available and the divers' experience no longer correspond to the initial phase of the local analysis of underwater diving accidents. In the early stages, the analysis shows that 90% of the accidents came from   divers not properly trained; The capacity of today's underground divers and the available technology allow divers to venture far beyond traditional training boundaries and conduct explorations   very far away. The result is an increase in cave diving accidents, in fact just   in 2011 the annual average of 2.5 deaths per year tripled to 7. In addition, in 2012 the average death rate   had already been exceeded   and reaches the highest  peak   to more than 20 deaths.
In response to the increase in deaths during 2010, the International Organization for Research and Exploration of Diving (IDREO) was created to "publicize the current situation of cave diving" by listing   and accident analysis through an "underground diver safety meeting" held annually.

Underwater diving equipment

Diving equipment used by underwater divers   range from fairly common recreational dive configurations to more complex arrangements that allow greater freedom of movement in confined spaces, a wide range of depth and time, with navigation, in usually dark, often loamy and convoluted spaces.
Underwater diving configurations   that are found more often in cave diving than in open water diving include bi-bottles   independent or multiple   sidemount harness   spare bottles, recyclers and with the battery of   harness and wings. Bill Stone designed and used a bottle   epoxy-based for the exploration of the San Agustín and Sistema Huautla caves in Mexico to reduce weight for dry sections and vertical passages.
Internships, extra bottles, are bottles   which are used to supply gas for some of the penetration.They   can be dropped down the line   during preparation dives, and be picked up for use during the main dive, or worn by divers and dropped to the line during penetration and   recovered at the output.
One of the most   high risk of cave diving   is to get lost in the cave. The use of life lines   is   the minimum standard to mitigate   this risk. Guide lines (line guide)   may be permanent or raised and retrieved during the dive, using   Spools of thread, spool, reel, for deployment and recovery of the line. Permanent bypass lines can be laid with a gap between the beginning of the diversion line and the point closest to the main line. Spools of shorter coils are commonly used to make   jumps between the main lines.
The   arrows   line are used to point to the nearest exit and the   Cookies   are used to indicate the use of a line by a team of divers.
The grub screws are short lengths of rigid tubing (usually plastic) with a sharp end and a notch or slot at the other end to secure the line, which are pushed into the silt or detritus of the underground river floor.   to tie the   line when no appropriate natural mooring point is available.
The diver's submarine thrusters, or scooters, are sometimes used to extend range   reducing workload on the diver and allowing faster movement in open cavern sections. The reliability of the diver's propulsion vehicle is very important, as a failure could compromise the diver's ability to exit the cave before running out of gas. When it comes to significant risk, divers can tow a spare scooter.
Diving lights are essential safety equipment because it is dark   inside the caves. Each diver usually wears a lighthouse   principal, and at least two   emergency diving lamps. A minimum of three lamps   is recommended. The autonomy of the primary lighting must   correspond with   the expected duration of the dive, as well as the emergency lights.




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