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الأخطار التي تهدد البيئة بالانجليزية

الأخطار التي تهدد البيئة بالانجليزية



الأخطار التي تهدد البيئة بالانجليزية
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THE EFFECTS OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION

DEFINITIONS

MAIN POLLUTANTS

SOURCES AIR POLLUTION
THE EFFECTS OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION

MONITORING AIR QUALITY
REGULATIONS

EPISODES OF POLLUTION
ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION AND AIRPORT ACTIVITIES
SCALE CONCEPT
The phenomena of atmospheric pollution concern different scales. At each scale, the pollutants that have an impact are not identical, they differ in particular by their lifetime in the atmosphere and their physicochemical dynamics.

Local scale
The so-called proximity pollution is mainly due to fixed sources (industrial or residential plume) or mobile sources (exhausts due to road traffic). It is often associated with perceptible phenomena by sight or smell, and the pollutants involved have a relatively short lifetime in the atmosphere. In the case of dense activities, high levels of pollution may cover entire agglomerations.

Regional scale
Urban or industrial pollution can travel long distances and impact the suburbs of agglomerations or even rural areas. This particularly concerns so-called "secondary" pollutants such as ozone (phenomenon of photochemical pollution) or the fallout in the form of acid rain. These fallout can be observed several tens or even hundreds of kilometers from their place of emission.

Planetary scale
Two main pollution phenomena have been highlighted on this scale:
• destruction of stratospheric ozone, or "hole" in the ozone layer.
• global warming or disturbance, due to the increase in greenhouse gases caused by humans.
At this scale, the place of emission does not matter: all the emitted compounds will accumulate in the atmosphere and persist for several tens or even hundreds of years by participating in the global impacts.

EFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH


Main effects on the local environment
Some compounds contribute to the alteration of materials such as sulfur dioxide, which corrodes and blackens buildings. Dust resulting mainly from the combustion of petroleum products or mining activities also dirty and deteriorate buildings, in relation to moisture and micro-organisms. Plants can also be damaged by certain pollutants: necrosis, slow growth, acidification of ecosystems, decreased resistance, etc. Some plants can also be used as indicators of pollution (lichens sensitive to sulfur dioxide, ozone tobacco ...): it is biomonitoring.
Acid rain is linked to certain so-called "acidic" pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2).

Effects on health
Pollutants can have multiple effects on human health. They can cause various disorders by inhalation (SO2, O3, PM10, etc.), by contact with the skin (aldehydes), or they can also lead to cardiac, digestive, renal and nervous disorders. Some VOCs, such as benzene, may be carcinogenic, teratogenic or mutagenic.

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إذا أعجبك محتوى مدونتنا نتمنى البقاء على تواصل دائم ، فقط قم بإدخال بريدك الإلكتروني للإشتراك في بريد المدونة السريع ليصلك جديد المدونة أولاً بأول ، كما يمكنك إرسال رساله بالضغط على الزر المجاور ...

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مواضيع بالعربية و الانجليزية topics

2016