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موضوع عن تلوث الهواء بالانجليزي قصير

موضوع عن تلوث الهواء بالانجليزي قصير



موضوع عن تلوث الهواء بالانجليزي قصير
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Health and economic impacts of air pollution

According to the WHO, air pollution is the main environmental risk for health in the world. For example, exposure to outdoor and indoor air pollution leads to premature death each year (about 80 million people are exposed to premature death due to exposure to air pollution). people in the world. In the WHO European zone (53 countries), it is estimated that about 600 000 deaths per year are related to air pollution (482 000 are due to outdoor air pollution and 117 200 to air pollution). indoor air pollution). According to a study published in 2015 by the WHO and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the economic cost of these 600,000 premature deaths as well as diseases caused by indoor and outdoor air pollution in the WHO's Europe area in 2010 reached US $ 1.6 trillion (or US $ 1.6 trillion).

In France, Public Health France (ANSP) estimates that pollution by fine particles (PM2.5, size less than 2.5 micrometers) emitted by human activities is at the origin each year, in mainland France, of at least 48,000 premature deaths a year, which corresponds to 9% of the mortality in France and a loss of life expectancy at 30 that can exceed 2 years. The ANSP also estimated that if all the French communes respected the WHO recommended value for PM2.5 (10 micrograms / cubic meter, μg / m3), more than 17,000 deaths could be avoided each year in France. In terms of economic impact, the Senate Committee on the Economic and Financial Cost of Air Pollution estimates that the total cost of air pollution (exterior and interior) is between 68 and 97 billion euros per year for France, a very large part of which is linked to health impacts.

In addition, WHO has recently conducted an assessment of outdoor air quality in 1,600 cities in 91 countries around the world and finds that only 12% of the total population of these urban ensembles breathe air that is WHO guides.

Does improving air quality actually translate into improved health?

Several epidemiological studies have analyzed the health impact of a decrease in pollution levels. These so-called intervention studies confirmed that the health benefits were very real when the air quality improves. For example, the Irish government's ban on the sale of bituminous coal in Dublin in 1990 resulted in a net decrease in particulate matter concentrations, coupled with a 6% drop in total mortality in the next 6 years intervention. The decrease in PM2.5 concentrations in the United States between the early 1980s and the early 2000s was accompanied by an improvement in life expectancy, with a gain of over 7 months of life expectancy following the lowering of PM2.5 PM2.5 air concentrations by 10 μg / m3, which represented a total of 15% of the improvement in life expectancy during this period.

The reduction of polluting emissions is the main lever to improve air quality. See page: Take action to improve air quality.

Focus on road traffic

The toxicity of the pollution generated by road traffic is notably due to gases and particles emitted by vehicles (exhaust, tire wear and brakes, vehicle air conditioning technologies, roadway wear and the maintenance of their surroundings). ...) and, among others, the high levels of emissions in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds and metals whose mutagenic and carcinogenic properties are very pronounced. Pollutants such as ultrafine particles (particles smaller than 0.1 micrometers) are found in high concentrations near streets and high-traffic roads.

In 2016, road transport accounted for about 15%, 58% and 48% of the metropolitan average emissions respectively of PM2.5 fine particles, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon soot, The proportions may be locally higher, especially near roads with high traffic.

According to studies, the pollutants of car traffic would be more harmful than the pollutants emitted by thermal power stations.

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