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بحث حول التلوث المائي بالانجليزية

بحث حول التلوث المائي بالانجليزية



بحث حول التلوث المائي بالانجليزية
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Causes of water pollution

 Different types of water pollution
 Pollution of water: the French point
 Water pollution: which laws govern the protection of water?
Causes of water pollution
For many reasons, water will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. In France, the main challenge related to this resource will undoubtedly be the pollution of different water sources.

To better understand the issues related to water pollution, here is all you need to know about its causes, the different types of pollution, as well as the measures that aim to reduce this problem.

Different types of water pollution

Unsurprisingly, it is the man who is primarily responsible for water pollution, even if rare natural phenomena (landslides, floods, etc.) can also lead to a prefectural decree that prohibits the water consumption of the water. tap.

There are two types of pollution:

Organic pollution: it is caused by microorganisms (bacteria and viruses) present in the water. It is generated by excrement, animal waste (expired meat, old bones, etc.) and vegetable waste (mowing grass, pruning, etc.).
Chemical pollution is generated by: the nitrates and phosphates of pesticides, human and animal drugs, household products, paint, heavy metals and acids and hydrocarbons used in industry.
Good to know: in 2013, in France, 48.2% of surface water (lakes, rivers) and 67% of groundwater (groundwater) were considered "in good chemical state".

Pollution of water: the French point

Although the pollutions to which the waters are subject are very diverse, there are however 2 extremely harmful pollutants very present in French waters:

Pesticides, present in 93% of surface water and 70% of groundwater before treatment (in 2013).
Nitrates, present in 31% of surface water and 50% of groundwater at a concentration greater than 25 mg / L before treatment (in 2014-2015).
With regard to industrial pollution (heavy metals, acids and hydrocarbons), this type of pollution decreased sharply from the second half of the 20th century.

On the other hand, the pollution to the drugs, in particular due to the contraceptive pill, worries more and more the authorities.

Water pollution: which laws govern the protection of water?

Agricultural pollution

The Public Health Code and environmental laws prohibit any polluting activity within the water abstraction perimeters: the ZNT (Untreated Zones). And farmers are forced to plant "buffer strips" of 5 meters between crops and streams to capture some of the pollutants.

In general, there is a tendency to limit and control the use of pesticides for the protection of water and the environment:

Spraying has been banned by air and is regulated according to a schedule specific to each crop over land.
Professional users of pesticides (including farmers) are obliged to record in a register their uses of phytosanitary products.
Pesticides, fungicides and herbicides are prohibited in public areas.
The sale of most phytosanitary products is prohibited to individuals since 2017, and their use from 2019.
Note: The most dangerous pesticides have simply been removed from the market.

Urban pollution

Concerning urban pollution, four cases stand out:

Private facilities (septic tanks, etc.) must also comply with many standards and are subject to regular controls by municipalities.
Wastewater treatment plants must comply with many European and French regulations.
Industrialists who discharge their wastewater into rivers or lakes must control their discharges (they may have their own treatment plant).

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